Europeana Knowledge Baseedm:ProvidedCHO

edm:ProvidedCHO

The values in these properties relate to the original cultural heritage object (CHO) itself, not the digital representation of it. E.g. the attributes of the painting Mona Lisa, not the digitised image of the painting.

The only exception (for historical reasons) is edm:type, which refers to a general type of digital media.

  • The mandatory properties, namely dc:title OR dc:description (at least one should be present, if both can be used alongside each other), dc:language for text objects, dc:subject OR dc:type OR dcterms:spatial OR dcterms:temporal ((at least one should be present, if all can be used alongside each other), edm:type are marked in dark blue.

  • The recommended properties are marked in dark red.

  • The optional properties are left in black.

Please provide the properties in the record in the same order given in this document, the metadata validation performed by Europeana requires this order.

Properties for edm:ProvidedCHO

 

Property name

Description

Value type

Cardinality

dc:contributor

Use for contributors to the CHO. If possible supply the identifier of the contributor from an authority source. Providers with richer role terms can elect to map a subset to dc:contributor and others to dc:creator.

Repeat for multiple contributors.

<dc:contributor>Maria Callas</dc:contributor>
or create a reference to an instance of the Agent class
<dc:contributor rdf:resource=“http://www.example.com/MariaCallas”>

For recommendations on medata quality see https://europeana.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/EF/pages/1969979393 ,

literal or ref

0....n

dc:coverage

The spatial or temporal topic of the CHO. Use the more precise dcterms:spatial or dcterms:temporal properties if the data will support it.
<dc:coverage>1995-­1996</dc:coverage>

or

<dc:coverage>Berlin</dc:coverage>
or create a reference to an instance of a contextual class, for example, a Place class
<dc:coverage rdf:resource=“https://sws.geonames.org/2950159/ ”/>

literal or ref

0....n

dc:creator

For the creator of the CHO. If possible supply the identifier of the creator from an authority source. Repeat for multiple creators.
<dc:creator>Shakespeare, William</dc:creator>
or create a reference to an instance of the Agent class
<dc:creator rdf:resource=“http://viaf.org/viaf/96994048”/>

For recommendations on medata quality see https://europeana.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/EF/pages/1969979393 .

literal or ref

0....n

dc:date

Use for a significant date in the life of the CHO. Europeana recommends date conforming to ISO 8601 starting with the year and with hyphens (YYYY-­MM-DD).
NB: other EDM elements are relevant for expressing dates of different events in the life of the CHO: dcterms:temporal, dcterms:created and dcterms:issued. Be careful and choose the most appropriate one!

<dc:date>Early 20th century</dc:date>

or

<dc:date>1919</dc:date>

or create a reference to an instance of the TimeSpan class

<dc:date rdf:resource=“http://semium.org/time/19xx_1_third”/>

literal or ref

0....n

dc:description

A description of the CHO. If there is no dc:description for an object, there must be a dc:title. If both are available, provide both.

<dc:description>Illustrated guide to airport markings and lighting signals, with particular reference to SMGCS (Surface Movement Guidance and Control System) for airports with low visibility conditions.</dc:description>

literal or ref

0....n

dc:format

Use for the terms generally applied to indicate the format of the cultural heritage object or the file format of a born digital object. Use the value “3D-­PDF” if appropriate.
<dc:format>paper</dc:format>

For recommendations on medata quality see https://europeana.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/EF/pages/1969979393 .

literal or ref

0....n

dc:identifier

An identifier of the original CHO.
<dc:identifier>RP-­T-­1952-­380</dc:identifier>

literal

0….n

dc:language

The language of text CHOs and also for other types of CHO if there is a language aspect. Mandatory for TEXT objects, strongly recommended for other object types with a language element. Best practice is to use ISO 639 two- or three-letter primary language tags.

Repeat for multiple languages.
We also recommend the use of the ISO 639-­2 code for no linguistic content (ZXX).

literal

0....n

dc:publisher

The name of the publisher of the CHO. If possible supply the identifier of the publisher from an authority source.

<dc:publisher>Oxford University Press</dc:publisher>

or create a reference to an instance of the Agent class
<dc:publisher rdf:resource=“http://www.oup.com/”/>

For recommendations on medata quality see https://europeana.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/EF/pages/1969979393 .

literal or ref

0....n

dc:relation

The name or identifier of a related resource, generally used for other related CHOs. Cf edm:isRelatedTo.

<dc:relation>maps.crace.1/33</dc:relation> (Shelf mark)

Or to provide a link to another object:

<dc:relation rdf:resource=“http://www.identifier/relatedObject”/>

literal or ref

0....n

dc:rights

Use to give the name of the rights holder of the CHO if possible or for more general rights information. (Note that the controlled edm:rights property relates to the digital objects and applies to the edm:WebResource and/or edm:Aggregation).
<dc:rights>Copyright © British Library Board</dc:rights>

literal or ref

0....n

dc:source

A related resource from which the described resource is derived in whole or in part i.e. the source of the original CHO. (Not the name of the content holder: for this see edm:dataProvider.)

<dc:source>Security Magazine pp 3-12</dc:source>

literal or ref

0....n

dc:subject

The subject of the CHO.

One of dc:subject or dc:type or dcterms:spatial or dcterms:temporal must be provided; if more than one of these properties is available, please provide them all. High-­level dc:subject values like 'archaeology' are allowed, especially when there is no other subject that can be easily filled in.

<dc:subject>archeology</dc:subject>
or create a reference to an instance of the Concept class

 

<skos:Concept rdf:about="http://semantics.gr/authorities/ekt-unesco/560215094">
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="el">Αρχαιολογία</skos:prefLabel>
<skos:prefLabel xml:lang="en">Archaeology</skos:prefLabel>

</skos:Concept>

For recommendations on medata quality see https://europeana.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/EF/pages/1969979393 .

literal or ref

0....n

dc:title

A name given to the CHO. dc:title should be present; but if there is no dc:title available, it is acceptable to have dc:description instead. dc:title and dc:description should be distinct. Exact translations of the title can be provided using appropriate xml language attributes.
<dc:title xml:lang=“en”>Eight Weeks</dc:title>
<dc:title xml:lang=“it”>Ocho semanas</ dc:title>

literal

0....n

dc:type

The nature or genre of the CHO. Ideally the term(s) will be taken from a controlled vocabulary. One of dc:type or dc:subject or dcterms:spatial or dcterms:temporal must be provided; if more than one of these properties is available, please provide them all. dc:type should not be (strictly) identical to edm:type.

<dc:type>Book</dc:type>

or

<dc:type>trombone</dc:type>

or create a reference to an instance of the Concept class

<dc:type rdf:resource=“http://www.mimo-­db.eu/HornbostelAndSachs/356/”>

For recommendations on medata quality see https://europeana.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/EF/pages/1969979393 .

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:alternative

Any alternative title of the CHO including abbreviations or translations that may not be exact.

<dcterms:alternativexml:lang=“en”>Eight weeks: a novel</dcterms:alternative>

literal

0….n

dcterms:conformsTo

An established standard to which the CHO conforms.
<dcterms:conformsTo>W3C WCAG 2.0</dcterms:conformsTo> (conforms to web content accessibility guidelines).
Or link to the resource
<dcterms:conformsTo rdf:resource=“http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG/”/>

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:created

The date of creation of the CHO. Europeana recommends date conforming to ISO 8601 starting with the year and with hyphens (YYYY-­MM-DD).
NB: other EDM elements are relevant for expressing dates of different events in the life of the CHO: dc:date, dcterms:temporal and dcterms:issued. Be careful and choose the most appropriate one!

<dcterms:created>Mid 16th century</dcterms:created>

or

<dcterms:created>1584</dcterms:created>

or create a reference to an instance of the TimeSpan class

<dcterms:created rdf:resource=“http://semium.org/time/15xx_3_third”/>

For recommendations on medata quality see https://europeana.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/EF/pages/1969979393 .

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:extent

The size or duration of the CHO.
<dcterms:extent>13 cm</dcterms:extent> (the width of an original object).
<dcterms:extent>34 minutes</dcterms:extent> (the duration of an audio file)

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:hasFormat

A resource related to the CHO that is substantially the same as the CHO but in another format.
<dcterms:hasFormat>http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/f3/Europeana_logo.png</dcterms:hasFormat> for a png image file of the described tiff resource

Or as a link to a resource
<dcterms:hasFormat rdf:resource=“http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/f3/Europeana_logo.png’’/>

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:hasPart

A resource that is included either physically or logically in the CHO. It is possible to use either dcterms:isPartOf or dcterms:hasPart to express relation between objects in a hierarchy. However in many cases (especially when a parent object has many children) it is preferable to use dcterms:isPartOf.
<dcterms:hasPart>Vol.2. Issue 1</dcterms:hasPart>

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:hasVersion

Another, later resource that is a version, edition or adaptation of the CHO demonstrating substantive changes in content rather than format.
<dcterms:hasVersion>The Sorcerer’s Apprentice (translation by Edwin Zeydel, 1955)</dcterms:hasVersion>

In this example the 1955 translation is a version of the described resource.

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:isFormatOf

Another resource that is substantially the same as the CHO but in another format.
<dcterms:isFormatOf>Europeana_logo.tiff</dcterms:isFormatOf> where the resource being described is a png image file

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:isPartOf

A resource in which the CHO is physically or logically included.

This property can be used for objects that are part of a hierarchy and will be used to support an appropriate display in the portal. For that purpose it will be necessary to supply a reference as the value. See the Task Force report on representing hierarchical entities. It is possible to use either dcterms:isPartOf or dcterms:hasPart to express relation between objects in a hierarchy. However in many cases (especially when a parent object has many children) it is preferable to use dcterms:isPartOf.

<dcterms:isPartOf>Crace Collection of Maps of London</dcterms:isPartOf>

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:isReferencedBy

Another resource that references, cites or otherwise points to the CHO.
<dcterms:isReferencedBy>Till, Nicholas (1994) Mozart and the Enlightenment: Truth, Virtue and Beauty in Mozart’s Operas, W. W. Norton & Company</dcterms:isReferencedBy>

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:isReplacedBy

Another resource that supplants , displaces, or supersedes the CHO.
<dcterms:isReplacedBy>http://dublincore.org/about/2009/01/05/bylaws/</dcterms:isReplacedBy>

where the resource described is an older version (http://dublincore.org/about/2006/01/01/bylaws/)
or link
<dcterms:isReplacedBy rdf:resource=“http://dublincore.org/about/2009/01/05/bylaws/”/>

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:isRequiredBy

Another related resource that requires the CHO to support its function, delivery or coherence
<isRequiredBy>http://www.myslides.com/myslideshow.ppt</isRequiredBy> where the image being described is required for an online slideshow.

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:issued

Date of formal issuance or publication of the CHO. Europeana recommends date conforming to ISO 8601 starting with the year and with hyphens (YYYY-­MM-DD).

NB: other EDM elements are relevant for expressing dates of different events in the life of the CHO: dc:date, dcterms:temporal and dcterms:created. Be careful and choose the most appropriate one!

<dcterms:issued>1993</dcterms:issued>

or create a reference to an instance of the TimeSpan class

<dcterms:issued rdf:resource=“http://semium.org/time/17xx_3_third”/> (late 18th century)

For recommendations on medata quality see https://europeana.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/EF/pages/1969979393 .

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:isVersionOf

Another, earlier resource of which the CHO is a version, edition or adaptation, demonstrating substantive changes in content rather than format.
<dcterms:isVersionOf>The Sorcerer’s Apprentice<dcterms:isVersionOf>

In this example The Sorcerer’s Apprentice (translation by Edwin Zeydel, 1955) is the resource being described.

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:medium

The material or physical carrier of the CHO.
<dcterms:medium>metal</dcterms:medium>

For recommendations on medata quality see https://europeana.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/EF/pages/1969979393 .

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:provenance

A statement of changes in ownership and custody of the CHO since its creation. Significant for authenticity, integrity and interpretation.
<dcterms:provenance>Donated to The National Library in 1965</dcterms:provenance>

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:references

Other resources referenced, cited or otherwise pointed to by the CHO.
<dcterms:references>Honderd jaar Noorse schilderkunst </dcterms:references>

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:replaces

A related resource that is supplanted, displaced, or superseded by the CHO.
<dcterms:replaces>http://dublincore.org/about/2006/01/01/bylaws/</dcterms:replaces>

where the resource described is a newer version (http://dublincore.org/about/2009/01/05/bylaws/) or link to resource
<dcterms:replaces rdf:resource=“http://dublincore.org/about/2006/01/01/bylaws/”/>

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:requires

Another resource that is required by the described resource to support its function, delivery or coherence.
<dcterms:requires>http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/project/userinfo/css/oldbrowsers.css </dcterms:requires>

where the resource described is an HTML file at http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/project/userinfo/digitalTextArchiving.html

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:spatial

Spatial characteristics of the CHO. i.e. what the CHO represents or depicts in terms of space (e.g. a location, coordinate or place).

Either dcterms:spatial or dc:type or dc:subject or dcterms:temporal must be provided; if more than one of these properties is available, please provide them all.
dcterms:spatial is used to record the place depicted in the CHO and other locations associated with it as opposed to edm:currentLocation which is used only to record the place where the CHO is currently held (e.g. a museum or gallery).

Be careful to choose the most appropriate one!

<dcterms:spatial>Portugal</dcterms:spatial>
or create a reference to an instance of the Place class
<dcterms:spatial rdf:resource=“https://sws.geonames.org/2264397/ ”/>

For recommendations on medata quality see https://europeana.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/EF/pages/1969979393 .

literal or ref

0....n

dcterms:tableOfContents

A list of sub‐units of the CHO.
<dcterms:tableOfContents>Chapter 1. Introduction, Chapter 2. History </dcterms:tableOfContents>

literal

0....n

dcterms:temporal

Temporal characteristics of the CHO. i.e. what the CHO is about or depicts in terms of time (e.g. a period, date or date range.)

Either dcterms:temporal or dc:type or dc:subject or dcterms:spatial must be provided; if more than one of these properties is available, please provide them all.
Europeana recommends date conforming to ISO 8601 starting with the year and with hyphens (YYYY-MM-DD).

NB: other EDM elements are relevant for expressing dates of different events in the life of the CHO: dc:date, dcterms:created and dcterms:issued. Be careful and choose the most appropriate one!

<dcterms:temporal>Roman Empire</dcterms:temporal>

or create a reference to an instance of the TimeSpan class

<dcterms:temporal rdf:resource=“http://semium.org/time/roman_empire”/>

For recommendations on medata quality see https://europeana.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/EF/pages/1969979393 .

literal or ref

0....n

edm:currentLocation

The geographic location whose boundaries presently include the CHO. This location must have a position within an established positioning system: a location with coordinates or address or inside another location that has a position, such as a room within a (museum) building. Ideally this position should be provided with the value of the property, either by using a reference (to a Place entity) that has coordinates or an address attribute, or as a simple literal.

edm:currentLocation is used only to record the place where the CHO is currently held (e.g. a museum or gallery)

dcterms:spatial is used to record the place depicted in the CHO and other locations associated with it

Be careful to choose the most appropriate one!
<edm:currentLocation rdf:resource=“https://sws.geonames.org/2950159/”> (Identifier for Berlin)

For recommendations on medata quality see https://europeana.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/EF/pages/1969979393 .

literal or ref

0....1

edm:hasMet

The identifier of an agent, a place, a time period or any other identifiable entity that the CHO may have “met” in its life.

<edm:hasMet rdf:resource=“http://viaf.org/viaf/96994048/”> (Identifier for William Shakespeare)

<edm:hasMet rdf:resource=“https://sws.geonames.org/6620265/ ”> (location identifier for Shakespeare’s Globe theatre.)

For recommendations on medata quality see https://europeana.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/EF/pages/1969979393 .

ref

0....n

edm:hasType

The identifier of a concept, or a word or phrase from a controlled vocabulary (thesaurus etc) giving the type of the CHO.

E.g. Painting from the AAT thesaurus. This property can be seen as a super-­property of e.g. dc:format or dc:type to support “What” questions.

<edm:hasType>Painting</edm:hasType>

literal or ref

0....n

edm:incorporates

The identifier of another resource that is incorporated in the described CHO. E.g. the movie “A Clockwork Orange” incorporates Rossini’s La Gazza Ladra” in its soundtrack.

<edm:incorporates rdf:resource=“http://www.identifier/IncorporatedResource/“>

ref

0....n

edm:isDerivativeOf

The identifier of another resource from which the described CHO has been derived. E.g. the identifier of Moby Dick when the Italian translation is the described CHO.
<edm:isDerivativeOf rdf:resource=“http://www.identifier/SourceResource/”>

ref

0....n

edm:IsNextInSequence

The identifier of the preceding object where both objects are part of the same overall resource. Use this for objects that are part of a hierarchy or sequence to ensure correct display in the portal.

<edm:isNextInSequence rdf:resource=“http://www.identifier/PrecedingResource”/

ref

0….n

edm:isRelatedTo

The identifier or name of a concept or other resource to which the described CHO is related. E.g. Moby Dick is related to XIX Century literature. Cf dc:relation.
<edm:isRelatedTo>Literature</edm:isRelatedTo>
Or link to resource
<edm:isRelatedTo rdf:resource=“http://www.eionet.europa.eu/gemet/concept?cp=4850/”>

literal or ref

0....n

edm:isRepresentationOf

The identifier of another object of which the described CHO is a representation. E.g. the identifier of the statue when the CHO being described is a painting of that statue.
<edm:isRepresentativeOf rdf:resource=“http://www.identifier/RepresentedResource/”>

ref

0....1

edm:isSimilarTo

The identifier of another resource to which the described CHO is similar.
<edm:isSimilarTo rdf:resource=“http://www.identifier/SimilarResource”/>

ref

0....n

edm:isSuccessorOf

The identifier of a resource to which the described CHO is a successor. E.g. “The Two Towers” is a successor of “Fellowship of the Ring”.
<edm:isSuccessorOf rdf:resource=“http://dbpedia.org/resource/The_Fellowship_of_the_Ring/”>

ref

0....n

edm:realizes

If the CHO described is of type edm:PhysicalThing it may realize an information object. E.g. a copy of the Gutenberg publication realizes the Bible.

ref

0....n

edm:type

The value must be one of the types accepted by Europeana as it will support portal functionality: TEXT, VIDEO, SOUND, IMAGE, 3D. (For 3D, when applicable, use the value “3D‐PDF” in dc:format )

<edm:type>IMAGE</edm:type> (upper-­case & case sensitive)

<edm:type>3D</edm:type> (upper-­case & case sensitive)

literal

1….1

owl:isSameAs

Use to point to your own (linked data) representation of the object, if you have already minted a URI identifier for it. It is also possible to provide URIs minted by third-­‐parties for the object.

<owl:sameAs rdf:resource=“http://www.identifier/SameResourceElsewhere/”>

ref

0....n